Civil Services Mains Geography Syllabus


A Must Read for Civil Services Geography Optional of UPSC


Physical Geography


A01-Factors Controlling Landform Development;
A02-Endogenetic And Exogenetic Forces;
A03-Origin And Evolution Of The Earth’s Crusts;
A04-Fundamentals Of Geomagnetism;
A05-Physical Conditions Of The Earth’s Interior;
A07-Continental Drift;
A09-Plate Tectonics;
A10-Recent Views On Mountain Building;
A12-Earthquakes And Tsunamis;
A13-Concepts Of Geomorphic Cycles And Land Scape Development;
A14-Denudation Chronology;
A15-Channel Morphology;
A16-Erosion Surfaces;
A17-Slope Development;
A18-Applied Geomorphology;
A19-Geomorphology, Economic Geology And Environment.


B01-Temperature And Pressure Belts Of The World;
B02-Heat Budget Of The Earth;
B03-Atmospheric Circulation;
B04-Atmospheric Stability And Instability. Planetary And Local Winds;
B05-Monsoons And Jet Streams;
B06-Air Masses And Fronts;
B07-Temperate And Tropical Cyclones;
B08-Types And Distribution Of Precipitation;
B09-Weather And Climate;
B10-Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s And Trewar Tha’s Classification Of World Climate;
B11-Hydrological Cycle;
B12-Global Climatic Change, And Role And Response Of Man In Climatic Changes
B13-Applied Climatology And Urban Climate.


C01-Bottom Topography Of The Atlantic, Indian And Pacific Oceans;
C02-Temperature And Salinity Of The Oceans;
C03-Heat And Salt Budgets, Ocean Deposits;
C04-Waves, Currents And Tides;
C05-Marine Resources;
C06-Biotic, Mineral And Energy Resources;
C07-Coral Reefs Coral Bleaching;
C08-Sea-Level Changes;
C09-Law Of The Sea And Marine Pollution.


D01-Genesis Of Soils;
D02-Classification And Distribution Of Soils;
D03-Soil Profile;
D04-Soil Erosion, Degradation And Conservation;
D05-Factors Influencing World Distribution Of Plants And Animals;
D06-Problems Of Deforestation And Conservation Measures;
D07-Social Forestry, AgroForestry;
D08-Wild Life;
D09-Major Gene Pool Centres.

Human Geography:

F-Perspectives In Human

F01-Areal Differentiation;
F02-Regional Synthesis;
F03-Dichotomy And Dualism;
F05-Quantitative Revolution And Locational Analysis;
F06-Radical, Behavioural, Human And Welfare Approaches;
F07-Languages, Religions And Secularisation;
F08-Cultural Regions Of The World;
F09-Human Development India.

E-Environmental Geography

E01-Principle Ecology;
E02-Human Ecological Adaptations;
E03-Influence Of Man On Ecology And Environment;
E04-Global And Regional Ecological Changes And Imbalances;
E05-Ecosystem Their Management And Conservation;
E06-Environmental Degradation, Management And Conservation;
E07-Biodiversity And Sustainable Development;
E08-Environmental Policy;
E09-Environmental Hazards And Remedial Measures;
E10-Environmental Education And Legislation.

G-Economic Geography

G01-World Economic Development: Measurement And Problems;
G02-World Resources And Their Distribution;
G03-Energy Crisis;
G04-The Limits To Growth;
G05-World Agriculture: Typology Of Agricultural Regions;
G06-Agricultural Inputs And Productivity;
G07-Food And Nutrition’s Problems;
G08-Food Security;
G09-Famine: Causes, Effects And Remedies;
G10-World Industries: Location Patterns And Problems;
G11-Patterns Of World Trade.

H-Population And Settlement Geography

H01-Growth And Distribution Of World Population;
H02-Demographic Attributes;
H03-Causes And Consequences Of Migration;
H04-Concepts Of Over-Under-And Optimum Population;
H05-Population Theories, World Population Problems And Policies, Social Well-Being And Quality Of Life;
H06-Population As Social Capital.
H07-Types And Patterns Of Rural Settlements;
H08-Environmental Issues In Rural Settlements;
H09-Hierarchy Of Urban Settlements;
H10-Urban Morphology;
H11-Concept Of Primate City And Rank-Size Rule;
H12-Functional Classification Of Towns;
H13-Sphere Of Urban Influence; Rural-Urban Fringe;
H14-Satellite Towns;
H15-Problems And Remedies Of Urbanization;
H16-Sustainable Development Of Cities.

I-Regional Planning

I01-Concept Of A Region;
I02-Types Of Regions And Methods Of Regionalisation;
I03-Growth Centres And Growth Poles;
I04-Regional Imbalances;
I05-Regional Development Strategies;
I06-Environmental Issues In Regional Planning;
I07-Planning For Sustainable Development.

J-Models, Theories And Laws In Human Geography

J01-System Analysis In Human Geography;
J02-Malthusian, Marxian And Demographic Transition Models;
J03-Central Place Theories Of Christaller And Losch;
J04-Perroux And Boudeville;
J05-Von Thunen’s Model Of Agricultural Location;
J06-Weber’s Model Of Industrial Location;
J07-Ostov’s Model Of Stages Of Growth.
J08-Heartland And Rimland Theories;
J09-Laws Of International Boundaries And Frontiers.


K-Physical Setting

K01-Space Relationship Of India With Neighbouring Countries;
K02-Structure And Relief;
K03-Drainage System And Watersheds;
K04-Physiographic Regions;
K05-Mechanism Of Indian Monsoons And Rainfall Patterns;
K06-Tropical Cyclones And Western Disturbances;
K07-Floods And Droughts;
K08-Climatic Regions;
K09-Natural Vegetation, Soil Types And Their Distributions.


L01-Land, Surface And Ground Water,
L02-Energy, Minerals,
L03-Biotic And Marine Resources,
L04-Forest And Wild Life Resources
L05-And Their Conservation;
L06-Energy Crisis.


L01-Land, Surface And Ground Water,
L02-Energy, Minerals,
L03-Biotic And Marine Resources,
L04-Forest And Wild Life Resources
L05-And Their Conservation;
L06-Energy Crisis.


M01-Infrastructure: Irrigation, Seeds, Fertilizers, Power;
M02-Institutional Factors;
M03-Land Holdings, Land Tenure And Land Reforms;
M04-Cropping Pattern, Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Intensity, Crop Combination, Land Capability;
M05-Agro And Social-Forestry;
M06-Green Revolution And Its Socio-Economic And Ecological Implications;
M07-Significance Of Dry Farming;
M08-Livestock Resources And White Revolution;
M10-Sericulture, Agriculture And Poultry;
M11-Agricultural Regionalisation;
M12-Agro-Climatic Zones;
M13-Agro-Ecological Regions.


N01-Evolution Of Industries;
N02-Locational Factors Of Cotton, Jute, Textile, Iron And Steel, Aluminium, Fertiliser, Paper, Chemical And Pharmaceutical, Automobile, Cottage And AgroBased Industries;
N03-Industrial Houses And Complexes Including Public Sector Underkings;
N04-Industrial Regionalisation;
N05-New Industrial Policy;
N06-Multinationals And Liberalisation;
N07-Special Economic Zones;
N08-Tourism Including Ecotourism.

O-Transport, Communication And Trade

O01-Road, Railway, Waterway, Airway And Pipeline Net Works And Their Complementary Roles In Regional Development;
O02-Growing Importance Of Ports On National And Foreign Trade;
O03-Trade Balance;
O04-Trade Policy;
O05-Export Processing Zones;
O06-Developments In Communication And Information Technology And Their Impacts On Economy And Society;
O07-Indian Space Programme.

P-Cultural Setting

P01-Historical Perspective Of Indian Society;
P02-Racial Linguistic And Ethnic Diversities;
P03-Religious Minorities;
P04-Major Tribes, Tribal Areas And Their Problems;
P05-Cultural Regions;
P06-Growth, Distribution And Density Of Population;
P07-Demographic Attributes: SexRatio, Age Structure, Literacy Rate, Work-Force, Dependency Ratio, Longevity;
P08-Migration (Inter-Regional, Interaregional And International) And Associated Problems;
P09-Population Problems And Policies;
P10-Health Indicators.


Q01-Types, Patterns And Morphology Of Rural Settlements;
Q02-Urban Developments;
Q03-Morphology Of Indian Cities;
Q04-Functional Classification Of Indian Cities;
Q05-Conurbations And Metropolitan Regions;
Q06-Urban Sprawl;
Q07-Slums And Asssociated Problems;
Q08-Town Planning;
Q09-Problems Of Urbanisation And Remedies.

R-Regional Development And Planning

R01-Experience Of Regional Planning In India;
R02-Five Year Plans;
R03-Integrated Rural Development Programmes;
R04-Panchayati Raj And Decentralised Planning;
R05-Command Area Development;
R06-Watershed Management;
R07-Planning For Backward Area, Desert, Drought-Prone, Hill Tribal Area Development;
R08-Multi-Level Planning;
R09-Regional Planning And Development Of Island Territories.

S-Political Aspects

S01-Geographical Basis Of Indian Federalism;
S02-State Reorganisation;
S03-Emergence Of New States;
S04-Regional Consciousness And Inter-State Issues;
S05-International Boundary Of India And Related Issues;
S06-Cross-Border Terrorism;
S07-India’s Role In World Affairs;
S08-Geopolitics Of South Asia And Indian Ocean Realm.

T-Contemporary Issues

T01-Ecological Issues:
T02-Environmental Hazards: Landslides, Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods And Droughts,
T03-Issues Related To Environmental Pollution;
T04-Changes In Patterns Of Land Use;
T05-Principles Of Environmental Impact Assessment And Environmental Management;
T06-Population Explosion And Food Security;
T07-Environmental Degradation; Deforestation, Desertification And Soil Erosion;
T08-Problems Of Agrarian And Industrial Unrest;
T09-Regional Disparities In Economic Development;
T10-Concept Of Sustainable Growth And Development;
T11-Environmental Awareness;
T12-Linkage Of Rivers;
T13-Globalisation And Indian Economy

Written by Venkadesh Narayanan, IRAS

He is a Mechanical Engineer and an MBA with over 30 years of experience in Consulting and Coaching Civil Services aspirants. He is a former member of Indian Civil Services (IRAS 2000 Batch) who opted for Geography and Psychology papers during his CS Mains.

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