A Must Read for Civil Services Geography Optional of UPSC
For the civil services mains examination, UPSC provides 41 optional subjects. Each aspirant should select one optional paper of their choice and appear in two papers (Paper-I and Paper-II). Among these options, for a long time, Geography has been one of the most popular optional subjects among civil services aspirants. Though the syllabus is vast, it is equally preferred by engineering, science, art, and humanities graduates.
The first step to prepare for the Geography Optional is thoroughly reading and understanding the NCERT Geography Books. Even before that understanding the contents of each of the 10 NCERT Geography Books. With that in mind, the key topics covered in each of these books are given below for a high-level understanding before you dive deep into the option.
CHAPTER 1 – RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
TYPES OF RESOURCES - On the Basis of Origin; Biotic Resources; Abiotic Resources; On the Basis of Exhaustibility; Renewable Resources; Non-Renewable Resources; On the Basis of Ownership; Individual Resources; Community Owned Resources; National Resources; International Resources; On the Basis of the Status of Development; Potential Resources; Developed Resources; Stock; Reserves.
DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES - Sustainable development; Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992; Agenda 21.
RESOURCE PLANNING - Resource Planning in India; Conservation of Resources.
LAND RESOURCES - LAND UTILISATION - LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA - LAND DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION MEASURES.
SOIL AS A RESOURCE - Classification of soils; Alluvial Soils; Black Soil; Red and Yellow Soils; Laterite Soil; Forest Soils; Arid Soils; Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation; State of India’s Environment ..... NCERT Chapter Link
CHAPTER 2 – FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES
Flora and Fauna in India; Vanishing Forests; Normal Species; Endangered Species; Vulnerable Species; Rare Species; Endemic Species; Extinct Species; Asiatic Cheetah where did they go; The Himalayan Yew in trouble; Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India; Project Tiger; Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources; Reserved Forests; Protected Forests; Unclassed Forests; Community and Conservation; Sacred groves - a wealth of diverse and rare species ..... NCERT Chapter Link
CHAPTER 3 – WATER RESOURCES
WATER SCARCITY AND THE NEED FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
MULTI-PURPOSE RIVER PROJECTS AND INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT - Hydraulic Structures in Ancient India.
RAINWATER HARVESTING ..... NCERT Chapter Link
CHAPTER 4 – AGRICULTURE
TYPES OF FARMING - Primitive Subsistence Farming; Jhumming; Intensive Subsistence Farming; Commercial Farming.
CROPPING PATTERN - Major Crops; Rice; Wheat; Millets; Maize; Pulses; Food Crops other than Grains; Sugarcane; Oil Seeds; Tea; Coffee; Horticulture Crops; Non-Food Crops; Rubber; Fibre Crops; Cotton; Technological and Institutional Reforms; Bhoodan – Gramdan; Contribution of agriculture to the national economy, employment and output; Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture; Can you name any gene modified seed used vastly in India? ..... NCERT Chapter Link
CHAPTER 5 – MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES
MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS - Where are these minerals found?; Ferrous Minerals; Iron Ore; Manganese; Non-Ferrous Minerals; Copper; Bauxite; Non-Metallic Minerals; Rock Minerals; Hazards of Mining.
CONSERVATION OF MINERALS - Energy Resources; Conventional Sources of Energy; Coal; Petroleum; Natural Gas; Electricity; Non-Conventional Sources of Energy; Nuclear or Atomic Energy; Solar Energy; Wind power; Biogas; Tidal Energy; Geo Thermal Energy; Conservation of Energy Resources ..... NCERT Chapter Link
CHAPTER – 6 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING - Contribution of Industry to National Economy; Industrial Location; Classification of Industries; Agro-based Industries; Textile Industry; Cotton Textiles; Jute Textiles; Sugar Industry; Mineral-based Industries; Iron and Steel Industry; Aluminium Smelting; Chemical Industries; Fertilizer Industry; Cement Industry; Automobile Industry; Information Technology and Electronics Industry; Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation; Control of Environmental Degradation; NTPC shows the way ..... NCERT Chapter Link
CHAPTER – 7 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
TRANSPORT – Roadways; Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways; National Highways; State Highways; District Roads; Other Roads; Border Roads; Railways; Pipelines; Waterways; Major Sea Ports; Airways; Communication; International Trade; Tourism as a Trade ..... NCERT Chapter Link