SOP Manual for Phosphatic Fertilizer Manufacturing


Phosphatic Fertilizer Manufacturing industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing phosphatic fertilizer materials or (2) manufacturing phosphatic materials and mixing them into fertilizers.

List of products that are being made under this industry

  • Ammonium phosphates manufacturing
  • Defluorinated phosphates manufacturing
  • Diammonium phosphates manufacturing
  • Fertilizers, mixed, made in plants producing phosphatic fertilizer materials
  • Phosphatic fertilizer materials manufacturing
  • Phosphoric acid manufacturing
  • Plant foods, mixed, made in plants producing phosphatic fertilizer materials
  • Superphosphates manufacturing

The Asia Pacific and Central & South America are providing ample opportunity to the global market for phosphate fertilizers and are expected to grow at a considerable rate over the forecast period. In terms of volume, Asia Pacific held the largest market share in 2016, capturing 59.1% of the global market. The rising population across the globe is boosting the demand for diversified food, which will eventually boost demand for phosphate fertilizers over the forecast period. India is the second-largest consumer and largest importer of diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizers.

The market for phosphate fertilizers in Central and South America was dominated by Brazil, followed by Argentina and other countries such as Columbia and Chile. Rising population and changing dietary patterns have fueled the demand for food products in the region, which in turn, will drive the demand for phosphate fertilizers over the forecast period.

Some of the major players of this industry are

  • Mosaic Phosphates MP Inc
  • Simplot Phosphates, LLC
  • Cog Marketers, Ltd
  • The Mosaic Company
  • Nu-West Industries
  • Exxon Mobil
  • SF Phosphates Co, Ltd
  • Israel Chemicals
  • Agrium


Some of the challenges faced by this industry are


Depending on the form they’re in and what they’re being processed into, phosphates can be anywhere from mildly to extremely abrasive. Whether produced to be a fertilizer such as MAP, DAP, or NPK, or an animal feed such as MCP or DCP, abrasiveness can pose problems to unprotected equipment, and therefore, equipment will need to be designed with this in mind.


Phosphate products can also be dusty, depending on what form they’re in. Dust issues are especially problematic at phosphate beneficiation plants, where mined phosphate rock is dried after processing. The phosphate rock becomes dusty upon drying, and fines are commonly collected in a baghouse.

While these collected fines are dusty and difficult to handle, the opportunity exists in agglomerating the fines so they are more easily handled and processed down the line. The agglomeration of fines significantly reduces issues associated with dust, and also allows the product to be more easily reintroduced to the process.


In processing phosphate products, many corrosive solutions are often added. The base of many phosphate products is phosphoric acid, which is a highly corrosive material. Specialty alloys and linings are often required on equipment to protect against corrosion.


Clumping can also be an issue when processing phosphate products. Wet phosphates are prone to sticking and clumping, causing issues in processing equipment and impacting overall process efficiency.

While drying phosphates, sticking and clumping can occur on the belt conveyors and chutes going to the dryer, as well as on the walls and flights of the dryer. For this reason, phosphate rotary dryers are commonly fitted with knocking systems in order to reduce clumping during drying.


Phosphate deposits are incredibly diverse. Phosphate ore differs greatly from one deposit to the next, and even within the same deposit. This can be a challenge because each deposit will likely require modifications to processing methods in order to produce a quality product.


Similar to variation, phosphate rock is sometimes considered contaminated, meaning it is found in the presence of organics. This causes phosphate rock to be low in value or even unusable as-is. In these cases, the phosphate rock will typically require purification via calcination in a rotary kiln, a process commonly referred to as the upgrading of phosphate ore.

Governing bodies

For further references

Phosphate is a primary nutrient needed by plants to grow to their full potential. It is essential to normal plant growth, especially for the absorption of the sun’s energy and converting it to useful plant compounds. Several phosphate fertilizers are used to meet the phosphorous (P) requirement in plants. It helps create strong roots, stems, resistance to disease, and a productive plant.

Usage of phosphorous in chemical fertilizers and feed supplements enhances the soil’s nutrition. The use of fertilizers in agriculture is one of the key land management practices that substantially increases crop yield and soil fertility. As a critical component of the ‘green revolution’, phosphate fertilizers have contributed considerably in raising agricultural productivity and reducing hunger worldwide. Farmers treat their lands with phosphorus fertilizers to increase the yield of their crops. However, a large amount of this resource is lost from farm fields through soil erosion and runoff and down-swirling toilets.

On the downside, stringent private and government regulations in various countries are posing a challenge to industry growth. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous are naturally occurring elements for plant growth; however, increased levels of these nutrients can impact freshwater resources such as lakes, rivers, and streams. Sewage discharges and fertilizer runoff containing phosphorous contribute to increased nutrient water levels. High concentrations of phosphorous or nitrogen in freshwater resources can lead to excessive aquatic plant and algae growth. It can cause algae blooms, reduce water quality, and deplete oxygen levels, thereby stressing or killing aquatic life.

The global phosphate fertilizer market size was estimated at USD 51.6 billion in 2016. Increasing global population, meat consumption, and diversified food demand are anticipated to drive this market. In addition, the limited availability of arable land is likely to fuel demand over the forecast period.

Rising demand for cereals and grains on account of the rapidly increasing population across the globe is anticipated to support the growth of phosphate fertilizers over the coming years. In order to meet the soaring demand for food in keeping with limited availability of arable land, crop yield can be increased with the help of phosphate fertilizers.

SOP Manual for Phosphatic Fertilizer Manufacturing

Research By : Mohammed Ijas

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